This project draws on data from 11 principal sources. The majority of these data were collected by federal agencies—the U.S. Department of Education, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, and U.S. Census Bureau. When federally collected data were insufficient to address a particular indicator, non-federally collected data were sought and included. Each of the principal data sources is described below with notes indicating the data limitations and chapters where data were presented.

ACS

American Community Survey
U.S. Census Bureau
DATA LIMITATIONS
  • As with any secondary source, the data are limited in scope by the original questions and responses collected.
  • Survey research may incur issues of reliability and validity associated with self-report measures.
  • Information on the ways race and ethnicity is collected has changed over time and descriptions of race and ethnicity are limited by the categories provided to individuals at the time of data collection.
  • Given the nature of complex surveys, weighting is required to ensure the sample data are representative of a given population.

ACPS

American College President Study
American Council on Education (ACE)
DATA LIMITATIONS
  • As with any secondary source, the data are limited in scope by the original questions and responses collected.
  • Survey research may incur issues of reliability and validity associated with self-report measures.
  • Information on the ways race and ethnicity is collected has changed over time and descriptions of race and ethnicity are limited by the categories provided to individuals at the time of data collection.
  • The ACPS samples may not necessarily be representative of the results achievable if all accredited degree-granting college and university presidents had responded.

B&B

Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)
DATA LIMITATIONS
  • As with any secondary source, the data are limited in scope by the original questions and responses collected.
  • Survey research may incur issues of reliability and validity associated with self-report measures.
  • Information on the ways race and ethnicity is collected has changed over time and descriptions of race and ethnicity are limited by the categories provided to individuals at the time of data collection.
  • Given the nature of complex surveys, weighting is required to ensure the sample data are representative of a given population.

BPS

Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)
DATA LIMITATIONS
  • As with any secondary source, the data are limited in scope by the original questions and responses collected.
  • Survey research may incur issues of reliability and validity associated with self-report measures.
  • Information on the ways race and ethnicity is collected has changed over time and descriptions of race and ethnicity are limited by the categories provided to individuals at the time of data collection.
  • Given the nature of complex surveys, weighting is required to ensure the sample data are representative of a given population.

CPS

Current Population Survey
U.S. Census Bureau & U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
DATA LIMITATIONS
  • As with any secondary source, the data are limited in scope by the original questions and responses collected.
  • Survey research may incur issues of reliability and validity associated with self-report measures.
  • Information on the ways race and ethnicity is collected has changed over time and descriptions of race and ethnicity are limited by the categories provided to individuals at the time of data collection.
  • Given the nature of complex surveys, weighting is required to ensure the sample data are representative of a given population.
  • Data are not representative of non-civilian and institutionalized populations.

CUPA-HR

College and University Professional Association for Human Resources
DATA LIMITATIONS
  • As with any secondary source, the data are limited in scope by the original questions and responses collected.
  • Survey research may incur issues of reliability and validity associated with self-report measures.
  • Due to the sensitive and confidential nature of the information, comprehensive results may only be available in aggregated data.
  • Information on the ways race and ethnicity is collected has changed over time and descriptions of race and ethnicity are limited by the categories provided to individuals at the time of data collection.

Digest

Digest of Education Statistics
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)
DATA LIMITATIONS
  • As with any secondary source, the data are limited in scope by the original questions and responses collected.
  • Survey research may incur issues of reliability and validity associated with self-report measures.
  • While the Digest can provide a vast amount of information, the compilation uses a diverse set of public and private data, where variables and indicators may have been defined or categorized differently than intended when combining data sources.
  • Information on the ways race and ethnicity is collected has changed over time and descriptions of race and ethnicity are limited by the categories provided to individuals at the time of data collection.

GED®

General Educational Development
GED Testing Service
DATA LIMITATIONS
  • As with any secondary source, the data are limited in scope by the original questions and responses collected.
  • Survey research may incur issues of reliability and validity associated with self-report measures.
  • Due to the sensitive and confidential nature of the information, comprehensive results may only be available in aggregated data.
  • Information on the ways race and ethnicity is collected has changed over time and descriptions of race and ethnicity are limited by the categories provided to individuals at the time of data collection.

IPEDS

Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)
DATA LIMITATIONS
  • As with any secondary source, the data are limited in scope by the original questions and responses collected.
  • Survey research may incur issues of reliability and validity associated with self-report measures.
  • Information on the ways race and ethnicity is collected has changed over time and descriptions of race and ethnicity are limited by the categories provided to individuals at the time of data collection.

NPSAS

National Postsecondary Student Aid Study
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)
DATA LIMITATIONS
  • As with any secondary source, the data are limited in scope by the original questions and responses collected.
  • Survey research may incur issues of reliability and validity associated with self-report measures.
  • Information on the ways race and ethnicity is collected has changed over time and descriptions of race and ethnicity are limited by the categories provided to individuals at the time of data collection.
  • Given the nature of complex surveys, weighting is required to ensure the sample data are representative of a given population.
  • Some estimates cannot be generated due to small sample sizes.

NSC

National Student Clearinghouse
DATA LIMITATIONS
  • NSC data varies in the degree to which they capture enrollment at different types of colleges and universities.
  • Information on the ways race and ethnicity is collected has changed over time and descriptions of race and ethnicity are limited by the categories provided to individuals at the time of data collection.